Epiphany, the Feast of The Wise Men
Epiphany is celebrated 12 days after Christmas on 6th January (or January 19th for some Orthodox Church who have Christmas on 7th January) and is the time when Christians remember the Wise Men (also sometimes called the Three Kings) who visited Jesus. The Bible doesn't say how many Wise Men there were or that they were kings. The number three comes from the three gifts the Wise Men / Magi brought with them.
Epiphany is also when some Churches remember when Jesus was Baptised, when he was about 30, and started to teach people about God. Epiphany means 'revelation' and both the visit of the Wise Men and his Baptism are important times when Jesus was 'revealed' to be very important.
Some Churches celebrate use Epiphany to celebrate and remember both the visit of the Wise Men and Jesus's Baptism! Epiphany is mainly celebrated by Catholics and Orthodox Christians.
In Orthodox churches, Epiphany is also known as 'The Feast of the Holy Theophany' and it is as important as Christmas. During the services to celebrate Epiphany, on the eve of the feast and on the feast day, water is blessed (some churches only bless water at one service). This is to remember Jesus's baptism. The blessed water is used in church services during the rest of the year. People are often baptised on the Feast of the Holy Theophany. After the service, the water is also used by a priest to bless the houses of people in the church. It can sometimes take days or even weeks for the priest to visit all the houses and bless them.
In Spain, Epiphany is an important festival, where it's also known as 'The festival of the three Magic Kings' - 'Fiesta de Los tres Reyes Mages', and is when Spanish and some other Catholic children receive their presents - as they are delivered by the Three Kings!
In Spain on Epiphany morning you might go to the local bakers and buy a special cake/pastry called a 'Roscón' (meaning a ring shaped roll). They are normally filled with cream or chocolate and are decorated with a paper crown.
There is normally a figure of a king (if you find that you can wear the crown) and a dried bean (if you find that you're meant to pay for the cake!). In Catalonia it's known as a Tortell or Gâteau des Rois and is stuffed with marzipan.
In France you might eat a 'Galette des Rois', a type of flat almond cake. It has a toy crown cooked inside it and is decorated on top with a gold paper crown.
There are similar traditions in Mexico where Epiphany is known as 'El Dia de los Reyes' (the day of The Three Kings). It's traditional to eat a special cake called 'Rosca de Reyes' (Three Kings Cake). A figure of Baby Jesus is hidden inside the cake. Whoever has the baby Jesus in their piece of cake is the 'Godparent' of Jesus for that year.
In Portugal, people take part in Epiphany carol singing known as the 'Janeiras' (January songs). On the Island of Maderia they're known as the 'Cantar os Reis' (singing the kings).
In Italy, some children also get their presents on Epiphany. But they believe that an old lady called 'Befana' brings them. Children put stockings up by the fireplace for Befana to fill.
In Austria, at Epiphany, some people write a special sign in chalk over their front door. It's a reminder of the Wise Men that visited the baby Jesus. It's made from the year split in two with initials of the names that are sometimes given to 'the three wise men', Caspar, Melchior and Balthazar, in the middle. So 2023 would be: 20*C*M*B*23. The sign is meant to protect the house for the coming year. Some parts of Germany also have the tradition of marking over doors. The 'Four Hills' Ski Jumping Tournament also finishes on 6th January in Bischofshofen, Austria.
At Epiphany in Belgium, children dress up as the three wise men and go from door to door to sing songs and people give them money or sweets, kind of like Trick or Treating on Halloween. Children in Poland also go out singing on Epiphany.
In Ireland, Epiphany is also sometimes called 'Nollaig na mBean' or Women's Christmas. Traditionally the women get the day off and men do the housework and cooking! It is becoming more popular and many Irish women now get together on the Sunday nearest Epiphany and have tea and cakes!
In the Ethiopian Orthodox Church (which celebrates Christmas on 7th January), twelve days after Christmas, on 19th January, the three day celebration of Ethiopians Timkat starts. This celebrates Jesus's baptism.
In New Orleans, Louisiana, in the USA, on Epiphany/King's Day, the Christmas Tree is either take down or the ornaments are replaced with Purple, Gold and Green ones and it's then called a 'Mardi Gras Tree'! People also like to eat 'King Cake' (a cinnamon pastry with sugar on the top and sometimes filled with cream cheese or jelly/jam). The King Cake will have a little baby plastic doll inside (which represents Jesus); whoever gets the piece with the baby has to supply the next King Cake! Some people have "King Cake Party" every Friday before Lent (the time before Easter).
Epiphany Eve (also known as Twelfth Night) marks the end of the traditional Christmas celebrations and is the time when you were meant to take Christmas decorations down. During the Elizabethan era people often left greenery up until Candlemas (this is still done by some people and in some countries).
There is also a custom that when you receive your first Christmas card with the Three Kings on it, you put it over the front door (on the inside) and will bring you good luck for the following year. Several visitors to the site from Ireland or from Irish heritage in the USA have reported doing this, as well as a Russian visitor to the site! It could also be related to 'chalk' marks for Epiphany put on doors in parts of Austria and Germany.